Parshat Teruma

1st Verse.

-take for me not giversgiving but involuntarilly take it

-whoever wishes , voluntary.

Rashi - 3 terumas 1. Head tax à silver sockets, (Adanim) used to sustain wall boards, ie held it all together

    1. terumas mizbeach yearly Ĺ shekel for sacrifices , also involuntary.
    2. Terumas HaMishkan,this is voluntary.

Therefore it is no contradiction, some are voluntary and so involuntary (and three times said teruma)

But why are so voluntary and some not?

    1. Adanim means sockets keep boards together. Who 1st called g-d adon? Master? Avraham. [malche zedek refers togod as in heaven above, created but then went to sleep, Avraham says koneh shamayim varetz, i.e. G-d is in control of things on earth too, that is idea of adnut] therefore represents Avrahm.
    2. Korbanos is for Isaac bec. sacrifice is substitute for Isaac bec man should sacrife himself to god , give everything. For av. everything was Isaac. Unlimited devotion. God doesnít want human sacrifices , so we bring animal instead.[ramban, p. vayikrah say av est sacrifices in place of our own self-sacrifice.
    3. Mishkan By Jacob it is said, you are standing on bet elokim, mishkan.

We pray 3 times for each of fathers. But Maíariv is called a voluntary prayer [now accepted as a vow], why? And Tos in brachos says it is not really voluntary, bec we do tashlumim for it? Tos answers , have to do it but voluntary. What does tosf. Mean, in between status?

Regarding Jacob we see 1. Jacob runs away to lavan, then god says run

    1. goes home, god command him
    2. goes to see yosef, god commands

His decision precedes the command from god. Why?

Jacob is Av [est pattern] [isaac is perfect jew therefore canít leave israel]who is the real Jew, works with dirt of lavan , esau and maintanis keddusha [goes to exile] therefore represents keddusha bec real kedusha is raising physical and sanctifying it. [blesings of amidah 1. AvRAHAM

2. isaac bec his soul left his body and he died and came back

3. yaacov raises and sanctifies phys

so too the temple is Keddusha because take very physical act and make them into holy things therefore jaacob is told here will be temple.

Therefore jaacob is capacity to survive in darkness, and in hester panim [purim] jews called shoshanas jaacob. No open miracles, no name of god, on the surface there is nogod, noexternal light. Time of issaruta delaila light from outside, using it you see the truth thepath. Vs. issarusa deletata where we work ourselves up to see the light, then you see the external light. So by har sinai, clarity f truth so strong left no rrom foract of volition. Isarusa delaila. Purim is from bottom. No great revelation, then the acceptance is voluntary [of the torah] . this is acceptance in the dark. This is an obligation in darkness bec the obligationis not clearly seen work self up to level of hearing god. Therefore always see that the inspiration comes from within. Therefore maariv is in night, when canít seee. A voluntary act which you choose to accept as an obligation, you vol. Recog. That it is an oblig. So too , mishkan, jaacob, must be voluntary, bec. mishkan is essence of Jacob.

 

 

Rashi- list of which materials you can give. Seems 15 but rashi says 13,how? Siftei Chachamim:

1. Count the 3 types of wool as one because they are all wool.

2. Donít count the two stones because they are for a different purpose.

Shemi Shmuel: Why did rashi try to make the number be 13? Because 13 words of Mosesí prayer to save the Jews for egel hazahav. Whatís the idea.

Shavuos, given 10 commandments, 40 days later, egel hazahav, 17 tamuz, then 40 days from R.H. Ellul until Yom Kippur. So when is 1st time Moses can tell Jews to build the mishkan, after yom kippur.

When does parshat teruma occur?

    1. Rashi, Rambam, after
    2. Ramban - in place here, i.e. before sin of golden calf, Moses may have told Jews later but he heard on Sinai.

Significance of argument: Would we need the mishkan if we hadnít sinned?

Siforno, end parshat Yisro 20:21 ďmake an altar filled with earth ... wherever you build an altarĒ So, if we hadnít sinned, individually we could build altars wherever we liked. Create our own mishkanos. This is rashi and rambam. So too in medrash rabba , use gold bec used gold in golden calf. Implication, if hadnít sinned we wouldnít be making the mishkan. But Zohar says mishkan was planned long before calf. So this is an old argument . Rashi holds it is a rectification of egel so the mishkan is related to 13 gates of mercy, bec god accepted prayer of moses, thus the Jews were allowed to build mishkan. So rashi emphasizes the 13 materials, rashi leshitaso.

Medrash also says, you voluntarilly gave gold earings, so give it now voluntarily. Like rambam. In Guide, idea of mishkan is to limit our drive for avodah zara . G-d allowed our tendency but limited it to guarantee it wonít lead to av. z eg. Only do it one place, only by cohenim, only certain animals. Mishkan is to recify av. z. our natural weakness. So fit to being fix for egel. Like siforno,uf we had no desire foridolotry, we could do ourselves sacrifices.

 

Mayana shel torah.

Things which occur much later, can be hinted to in torah.

Chatam Sofer re: Verse 3: ďzahav cesf unechoshes Ēhint to days when rabbis said we should read from the torah.

Z =shabbos, h = Thursday, b= Monday.

C= kippurim , s=succos, f = (f) pesach

N=neros(chanukkah) , ch= hodesh (also rosh Hashona) , sh = shavuos , s = taanis (fasts)

What is connection between this and the actual cotext of the verse? Acc to rambam. That parshat teruma is not in order, but comes after ki sisa w/golden calf. Siforno, avdus togod is a private experience. Sin showed we are unworthy or unrelyable . So limit to temple etc. therefore the experience must become public. Social gurantee. Torah only read 1 in 7 years by king,but moses est 1st tekana to read in public. Why didnít god also say to read it in public? (canít say this was an answer to a need which came later on)

Ideal vs. real. Ideally we shuld learn acc to our own capacity and needs , Jews went 3 days w/o water, w/o learningtorah so we had to institutionalize the wholelearning of torah. Just as rambam says that mishkan wass because we failed to have proper personal relationshp with god so chatam sofer is not just a coinsodence.

 

 

ďAsu li mikdash vshochanti btochamĒ Gamara says mikdash = temple. But why choose to use word mikdash? Inp. Teruma , the vessels are mentioned 1st. in p. teztaveh we see the outside part, boards etc. but in its building(vayakelpekudeh) we see Mishkan is built 1st . Gamarasays moshe said it as writtenbut betzalel said to doverse. Like a house, then vessels. Moses said you are right that is what god meant. Your nameis appropriate, yoour are in shadow of god, i.e. you know his every move/wish. Asks r. Bechayeh: so why didnít god say it that way? Was he testing betzalalel. And more , what was so clever about betzalel, how should he know to make this comparison to a house.

Compare to pesach called such by Jews, but G-d called it Hag hamatzos[even though pesach is based on a verse in torah] Understood by ex. Of son giving father coffee instead of water. Father takes son into cosideration, but son doesnít take self into account. Son is really going deeper into true desire of father. By passoverwe do mitzvos to be holier to fulfil his command, matzos are the mitzvos we do. Thatís how god views it, but when we view it what is important is the tremendous love of god for us that he chose us so we remember what he did for us. For god the purpose is the jew. We have different goalsin the holiday. Father is concerned with son and son with father{hayyim volushoniner extends to kasha: serve god not for reward, (pirke avos) but in Brochos it says god created world to giveus earned reward(recipient of His goodness) so our purpose is to receive reward!! One is from our perspective other from His]

Utencils is what we use to do thing in temple. What is for us to do. Like matzah. The Mishkan is the structure, that god dwells among us. For us the main thing is for helping himlet himm have a dweplace first[you could say the reverse that the vessels are for god, ie what he wants out of us, but the mishkan is for us, we enjoy His dwelling amongus]. Mishkan describes that god can rest, for god. Mikdash is for our sake, heís already holy{kadosh, kadoshÖ}but for us to be holy is the temple. Therefore mikdash emphasizes what we get out of it, mishkan is what he gets.

Make me a mikdash , recognize that purpose of mishkan is to sanctify the human being, and I will dwell among them. Gods purpose is to let jew perceive concentrated pres of god. Hard to experience inabstract, easier if concentrated in a specific place/object. Gd doesnít need a place, but he wants it for us to benefit, therefore called Mikdash.

 

Ark is 1st vessel, wood of shittim. 2 Ĺ cubit by 1 Ĺ by 1 Ĺ . Medrash, this is the only vessel with all three measures being half measures. Commentaries say since ark represents torah. Why torah start with b to say no matter how much you learn you never know it all[ a represents complete, perfect, b is separation two is not a unity] so too with Talmud printed with page b. you never learned the beginning. Feel you donít know it all, torah -= water, humble person no preconceived notions, aquires torah. Ĺ , see self as a half, I am not self sufficient, never completely fulfilled in knowledge then you can relate to ark. Torah never gives you that feeling of completeness, highest level is when you have more questions. At what level donít you know, that is symbolism of Ĺ.

 

Another meaning of the Ark verse 11: cover from inside and outside with gold. Yalkut shimoni in p. pikudeh says why cover both sides, only the outside is seen? Teaches a Talmid Chocham must be tocho kebaro [not hypocritical]inner characteristics must be same as what is shown. But the halocha is not this way. Gemara in brochos 28a says there was a revelution in Yeshiva in Yavne, the head of the yeshiva was r. gamliel , removed , young r. eliezer ben azarieh was put in his stead [beard turned white]. R. gamliel didnít let anyone who wasnot tocho kebaro come into the yeshiva, 1st thing R E.B.A. did was remove this requirement. Next day thousands of new chairs had to be added. A dream came to r. gamliel, donít worry about it, many people who are unworthy came in, so donít feel bad that maybe you kept torah from jews. But the gemara continues, that the dream only came to appease r. gamliel but really r. e.b.a. is right.[we assume the falsehood of the dreamis that it seems to imply r gamliel was right in not letting in students where infact it is fine to let in some bad with the good, and the dream was not actually false but merely its implication is false, but we could learn that the dreamed lied that some students were bad but in fact no bad students entered ] then we must conclude there is no need for tocho kebaro. So the inner gold goes unexplained acc. To r.e.b.a. IsnĎt the medrash saying a unanimusl opinion?

Rambamchap 4 hilch. Talmud torah canítteachto one wh is unfit to learn [bad charscter] or at least must be naïve, but if really bad, canít teach him until he rectifies his ways. But here we see maim. poskins like r. gamliel. But how can maim. seemingly just choose the side he prefers when the gemara shows clearly r.e.b.a. is right. The dream wa only an apeasement!! [we are understanding the tocho as actions consistent with espoused opinions, alternatively it could mean ones sayings sould fit to ones inner self and nature, then rambamís halacha would not be related to toch cebaro]

Maim learns as follows. Both agree one canít teach to bad person actions cosistent with learning(hypocrit) [people say wow to the torah that it has shuch scholars who are evil, i.e. the torah must be a bad book, h.v.] But r E.B.A. hold you donít have to searchout if they are bad or not, just take them in [but then the dream was perhaps right, perhaps some bad students did get inóor perhaps that is the point of it being to apease Gamliel, that infact not one bad person came in , but the dream told gaml. that bad ones did enter and his fears were justified] but if you happen to know he is bad then you canít teach himeven acc to re.e.b.a. And it is not a question of whether you can teach to unworthy people, but the q. is smaller, do you have to search out. R. Gamliel would assign a shomer to each student to check him out.

But where did the Maim. get the idea that both agree that canít teach to the unworthy? The gemara gives no hint of that. Rather it is from this medrash re the gold on both sides which is a universally accepted opinion. Ark Symbolizes the perfection of talmud hacham, so maim knows there canít be an argument so he is forced to find a much narrower argument. [does the fact that a talmid chacham must be tocho cebaro neccessailly mean one canít teach one who isnít ? maybe one should so that heíll improve.] Therefore a question of how much to investigate. Maim combines r.e.b.a. with this medrash.

Musar.1. we are representative of torah we must live up to what people exppect of a frum Jew , whether we are rabbiís scholars or engineers. If we try to trick others we will be found out or we will be forced into doing serious sins to prevent being found out. When people see we are unwavering they will respect us, that we take religion seriously, and they too will take it seriously.

2. Personally, we must be true to ourselves. If you do thing you know to be wrong either you will change your beliefs subconsciously or you will develop an inner impurity. Lightness os spirit comes from feeling I am being me. I am consistent with my own belief. Unhappiness stems from failing to be who you feel you are. This is called cognitive dissonance. Your psyche canít handle self-denial. A torah sage, the ideal person, must act as he knows is right to be himself healthy.

 

 

Verse 13